@RascaldeesV2 Disclaimer: I am not a lawyer, and I don’t know much about the Golden Record, but looking it up briefly, here’s some points to consider. This is also for US cases only, I’m not familiar with how things work internationally.
In general, quotes are okay to be used in media like novels and games if the quotes aren’t copyrighted or trademarked. Anything before 1923-1925 in our case (or something like that) in the US is okay. Ghandi’s “Be the change you want to see in the world” - fine. Aristotle or Socrates or whomever - fine. “I’ll be back” (Terminator), I believe, has been trademarked, so you can’t sell merchandise with that quote on it… I’m pretty sure that also would apply to games? But I don’t know if the GR has any quotes on it, so I don’t know how much this applies to you.
Looking at the Golden Record, however, I see that it has some lyrics from songs on it. Quoting lyrics in books always requires the permission of the copyright holder, in a legal sense. Lyrics are different from regular quotes because there are so few of them in a song that lyric-writers have to be somewhat more aggressive about protecting them, where as novels have so many words that they may naturally share small sentences or quotes by coincidence.
All this to say is that if you are transcribing 1) real-life lyrics or 2) popular quotes from the Golden Record, you would technically need permission from the copyright holders to do so, in a strictly legal sense. Even the people who made the Golden Record had to request the music studios’ permission to include their songs on the record.
HOWEVER, if your game is for free and not intended to be commercialized, none of this really matters and you can do whatever you want (because you’re not violating copyright by making money with your product) as long as you’re not defaming anyone.
I don’t know how heavily any of this would be enforced or how likely someone would notice/come after you for a small quote in your game, but that’s how things are in a technical sense. I hope that helps!